TDL
The Geographies of the Black Henna Meme Organism and the Epidemic of Para-phenylenediamine Sensitization: A Qualitative History
Catherine Cartwright-Jones
PhD Dissertation

Geography Department
Kent State University
2015

email: reverndbunny@earthlink.net
Black Henna Dissertation

The Geographies of the Black Henna Meme Organism and the Epidemic of Para-phenylenediamine Sensitization: A Qualitative History


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Citation:
 Cartwright-Jones, C. The Geographies of the Black Henna Meme Organism and the Epidemic of Para-phenylenediamine Sensitization: A Qualitative History.  PhD dissertation. 2015.  Kent State University, Kent, Ohio. Accession Number:  kent1425412566 
ABSTRACT

This qualitative history investigates the problem of the global epidemic of para-phenylenediamine sensitization through the epidemiology of the black henna meme organism.  ‘Black henna’ contains para-phenylenediamine oxidative dye, a highly sensitizing chemical which produces delayed hypersensitivity reactions on the skin. ‘Black henna’ body art evolved from traditional henna body art when artists began to add para-phenylenediamine to traditional henna body art because the chemical dye produced a faster, more efficient, darker stain. This chemical addition caused blistering, scarring in the area of the pattern, with a reaction appearing five to twenty days after application in about 15% to 50% of the subjects.

A maximization test of 10% para-phenylenediamine paste to skin causes sensitization in 100% of subjects in five or fewer applications.  All tested 'black henna' pastes have higher concentrations of para-phenylenediamine, from 12% to 80%, and all 'black henna' temporary tattoo applications are larger than a patch  test.

The connection between the body art and onset of the reaction was not well understood by patrons, and often not seen by the artists.  The latent severe chemical sensitivities caused by these applications often remained invisible for years. The ‘black henna’ temporary tattoo became a popular souvenir of exotic destinations and local celebratory cosmetic, as well as a profitable informal economic venture for the artist; the understanding of the risks did not proliferate along with the ‘black henna’ meme.

The ‘black henna’ meme replicated from local practice into global cultural geographies through pop culture, tourism, and the Internet.  Online and print media commentary about ‘black henna’ began around 1997, at which point the replication and evolution of the black henna meme organism became visible and recoverable, so the epidemiology of the ‘black henna’ meme can be recovered to trace the epidemiology of para-phenylenediamine sensitization.

This work analyzes the history, geography and cultural phenomenon of black henna meme organisms in the tourist industry through memetics and discourse analysis of online commentary on ‘black henna’ and the para-phenylenediamine sensitization epidemic produced by ‘black henna’ between 1997 to 2014.  This work will also estimate the date of onset and size of the sensitization epidemic, and propose a solution of management through competing meme organisms.

The Geographies of the Black Henna Meme Organism and the
Epidemic of Para-phenylenediamine Sensitization: A Qualitative History - expanded and illustrated chapters
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chapter 1

Chapter I: Introduction to the Qualitative History of ‘Black Henna’ and the Epidemic of Para-phenylenediamine Sensitization


Chapter I introduces the problems of 'black henna' and the challenges of researching 'black henna.'

Read this chapter if you are interested in black henna, the globalization of culture, cultural consumption, or the geograpies of women's economomies, children, informal economies and tourism.


Contents:

Two Case Studies of ‘Black Henna’ in the Third Space of Tourism: Camilla and Spider Girl Get ‘Black Henna’ in Zanzibar

Camilla was in a Third Space

Approaching the ‘Black Henna’ PPD Sensitization Epidemic through Cultural Geography

Approaching ‘Black Henna’ through Economic Geographies of Women

Approaching ‘Black Henna’ Through the Geographies of PPD

Approaching ‘Black Henna’ through the Medical Geographies of Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions in Tourism

Approaching ‘Black Henna’ through the Economic Geographies of Tourism

Approaching the Geography of ‘Black Henna’ through Cultural Consumption

Approaching ‘Black Henna’ through the Geographies of Souvenirs

Approaching ‘Black Henna’ through the Geographies of the Informal Economies of Street Vendors

Approaching ‘Black Henna’ through Children’s Geographies

Positionality

chapter 2

Chapter II: Cultural Geography, the Ideosphere, and Henna 


Chapter II introduces the study of the body and memetics in cultural geography, and the identification of of 'henna' and 'black henna.' 

Read this chapter if you are interested cultural geographic methods, the inscribed body in geography, and the memetics of cultural dispersion.

Contents:

Cultural Geography and the Body

Cultural Geography, Memes and the Ideosphere

Locating Memes in the Online Ideosphere

Locating the ‘Black Henna’ Meme in the Online Ideosphere

Cultural Geography, Memeplexes and ‘Black Henna’

The Memes of Body Modification and Globalization in the late Twentieth Century

Henna

Henna Memes Replicate into the West

Henna Memes Online

Henna Memes in the Mediasphere

The ‘Black Henna’ Meme

The ‘Black Henna’ Meme Manifests as Product

Black Henna before ‘Black Henna’ Temporary Tattoos
chapter 5

Chapter III. Methodology


Chapter III outlines the methods for research on henna, and online research methods for problems in cultural geography through memetics.

Read this chapter if you are interested in memetics, and researching cultural dispersion and change online. 


Contents:

Methodology Part 1: ‘Black Henna’ Memes as a Subject for a Qualitative Historical Research Project


Web Memetics

Memes and Cultural Geography

Memes and Henna

Globalization of the Henna Memes

Approaching the World Wide Web as an Archive

The Challenges of Archival Research on the World Wide Web

Identifying Returns with Reasonable Certainty

Navigating Around FUDD, Trolls, Sockpuppets, and Internet Jackholes

Methodology Part 2: Methods of Web Memetics

Security and Research

Managing Relevant Web Pages by Bookmarking and Tagging

Searching the Archive, Constructing the Database

Varying the Search Terms

Varying the Search Products

Quantitative Tags: When, Where, and What

Tags for Blended Quantitative and Quantitative Analysis: Who and How, Culture and Place

Authority, Authenticity, Formality, Informality, Gender and Age

Intention, Pronouncement and Audience

Tagging Qualitative Personal Narratives of Events

Methodology Part 3: Definitions and Diagrams

Chapter 4

IV. A Qualitative History of the Epidemiologies of Meme Organisms:


Chapter IV explains the development of henna and black henna in the English-speaking cultures of the West.

Read this chapter if you are interested in the histories of henna and black henna as they emerged into the West between 1970 and 2015. This includes the changing understandings of 'black henna,' the medical studies of 'black henna', 'black henna' vendors, and 'black henna' artists.

The 20th Century Understandings of Henna in English Language Publications

Contents:

Memes as Interactive, Competing, and Evolving Replicators in Network Environments

IV. Materials Part 1: Memes in Periodical Publications

The Evolution of Black Henna Meme Organisms in the English Language Periodical Publications Indexed by Lexis Nexis prior to the 1990s

Henna Meme Organisms in Travel and Local Sections

Changes in Traditional ‘Black Henna’ Body Art Techniques with the Availability of PPD

1996: The Rapid Evolution of Henna Meme Organisms Cooperate with Celebrity and Modern Primitive Culture Meme Organisms in the West

Henna Meme Organisms Evolve in Mainstream Western Popular Culture and Cooperate with Tattoo Meme Organisms

The Black Henna Meme Organism Proliferates and Globalizes in Cooperation with World Beat Pop Music Meme Organisms

Reactions to ‘Black Henna’ and the Meme Organism of ‘You Have to be willing to Suffer for Beauty’

Rapid Replication of the Black Henna Meme Organism Cooperating with Celebrity and MTV in 1998

The Meme Organism of Cultural Consumption Competes with the Meme Organisms of Cultural Ownership and Authenticity

The Henna Meme Organism Becomes a Signifier in Cooperation with the Trendsetter Meme Organism

Marketing ‘Black Henna’ through the Summer of 1998 and Early Warning Memes

2000: The Black Henna Meme Organisms of Injuries and Warnings Emerge in English Language Periodical Media and Compete with the Black Henna Marketing Meme Organisms

Henna Meme Organisms Stabilize in Travel, Lifestyle, and Local Sections of English Language Periodical News Publications

Late 2000: Henna Meme Organisms Give Rise to New Economic Activities and New Regulations

2001: The Black Henna Warning Meme Organism Evolves Differently in Different Network Environments

The Meme Organism of “The West is to Blame”

2002: More Black Henna Injury Meme Organisms from Medical Journal Articles Replicate into the News Media

Henna Meme Organisms Cooperating and Conflicting with Memes of Profit, Local Government Regulation, Culture, Warnings, and Free Will

2003: Henna Meme Organism Evolution Slows and Settles into the Networks of Informal Economies, Lifestyles, Multi-Culturalism, and Gains New Territory

Legislative and Regulatory Black Henna Meme Organisms Evolve in UK, Canada, and the USA

A Seasonal Cycle of Henna Meme Organism Replication Evolves in English Language Periodical Publications

The Boundaries of The Black Henna Warning Meme Organism’s Replication in Resort Management and Travel Agencies

PPD is awarded the prize of “Allergen of the Year

2007: Black Henna Injury and Warning Meme Organisms Spawn Regulations, Law, Enforcement and Liability

2008: Governments and Physicians Call for Bans

Evidence of the Black Henna Meme Organism Replication, Failure to Replicate, and Competition in Commentaries Following Two Articles

2010 – 2013: the Black Henna Meme Organisms in the Network Environments of English Language Periodical News Publications

Black Henna Meme Organisms in Local Network Environments in 2009 – 2013 in English Language Periodical News Publications in the USA

‘Black Henna’ Injuries and the Meme Organisms of Cultural Conflict

IV. Materials Part 2: Vendors’ Memes

The Evolution of Black Henna Meme Organisms in Online Vendor’s Statements

Vendors’ Black Henna Merchandising Meme Organisms: Amunez and Tarawa

Amunez ‘Black Henna’ and Black Henna Merchandising Meme Organisms Replicate into France through Tarawa, blackhenna.net and blackhenna.com

The Black Henna Merchandising Meme Organisms of Amazing Body Art Supply, 1999 – 2001

The Black Henna Merchandising Meme Organism of Blackhennakits.com 2001 – 2013

The Black Henna Merchandising Meme Organisms of ‘Little Miss Henna’

Over-the-Counter Sources of PPD Commonly Used to Make ‘Black Henna’ Temporary Tattoos

Production of ‘Black Henna’ in India and Pakistan Marketed in the West

IV. Materials Part 3: Online Discussion Memes

The Evolution of Black Henna Meme Organisms on hennapage.com and the Henna Page Discussion Forum

Black Henna Meme Organism Evolution and Competition in the English Language Henna Page Forum Social Network Environment in 1998 and 1999

Henna Meme Organisms and Black Henna Warning Meme Organisms in the Henna Page Discussion Forum Environment in 2000

IV. Materials Part 4: Memes in Tourism

The Qualitative History of Black Henna Meme Organisms in the Network Environments of Travel Forums

‘Black Henna’ Temporary Tattoo Injuries among Bali Tourists: the Evolution of Black Henna Diagnosis, Cause, and Treatment Meme Organisms

The Black Henna Libertarian Meme Organism of “It Is My Choice”

The ‘Black Henna’ Artists’ Memes

Tourists Blogging Transgression and ‘Black Henna’ in Southeast Asia

Inversion, Children, and ‘Black Henna’ in the Third Spaces of Tourism

Black Henna Meme Organisms in other Travel Advice Forums

IV. Materials Part 5: Medical Journal Memes

The Evolution of Black Henna Memes Organisms in English Language Medical Journals

The Stabilization of Black Henna Injury and Diagnosis Meme Organisms in the Network Environment of English Language Medical Journal Articles

Evolutions of the Black Henna Injury and Diagnosis Meme Organisms: Misinformation, Pediatrics, and Sensitizations

Cultural Use and the Boundaries of the Black Henna Injury and Diagnosis Meme Organism Replication

Black Henna Injury and Diagnosis Meme Organisms Give Rise to Regulation

chapter 5

V: Discussion of Results and Visualized Information


Chapter V diagrams the memetic evolution of henna and attempts to explain the conflicting understandings of henna and black henna. 

Read this chapter if you are interested in the the numbers and geographic spread of the para-phenylenediamie sensitization epidemic as caused by 'black henna' in tourism.

Visualizing the Qualitative History and Geographies of the Black Henna Meme Organisms through their Movement, Replication, Evolution, Cooperation, Conflict in Different Network Environments

Contents:

The Archaeology of Knowledge and Memes

Global Henna Memetic Replication

Memetic Replication in the Third Space of Tourism

Global Distribution Pathways of PPD, Warnings, and the Deniability of “Use Only as Directed”

The Replication and Evolution of Henna Meme Organisms

Evolution of Black Henna Meme Organisms Online through Different Pathways

An Idea Ruptures from a Discursive Field and Becomes Knowledge: a Meme Organism Replicates into a Complex Network Environment

The Points of Rapid Black Henna Meme Organism Co-evolution in Different Network Environments, and the Different Truths Produced

The Emergence of the PPD Identification and Black Henna Warning Meme Organism into Different Network Environments

The Seasonal Pulse of the Black Henna Meme Organism

PPD Content and Estimates of Sensitization through ‘Black Henna’ Temporary Tattoos

Cultural Memes Cooperating and Competing with Black Henna Meme Organisms

Beyond the Boundaries of the Online English Language Network Environment

chapter 6

Chapter VI:  Conclusion


Chapter VI discusses epidemic of para-phenylenediamine sensitization, and possibilities of managing the epidemic through policy and cultural change.

Read this chapter if you are interested in problems, policy issues, and potential solutions to the health problems caused by 'black henna.'

Approaching the Geographies of the Epidemic of PPD Sensitization through the Evolution of Black Henna Meme Organisms in Network Environments

Contents:

T
he Epidemic of PPD Sensitization in Globalizing Culture


Approaching Problems in Cultural Geography through Online Memetics

The Problems of Globalization, PPD and ‘Black Henna’

Approaching ‘Black Henna’ Through Legal Geographies and the Problems of Creating Policy

Approaching the Problem of PPD Sensitization through PPD Warning Meme Organisms in Network Environments